Rivers with large-scale
roughness have steep slopes and depths of the same order of magnitude as the
bed material size. Flow resistance depends on the form drag of the roughness
elements and their disposition in the channel. Theoretical processes considerations show
resistance to be a function of Reynolds number, Frande number, roughness geometry
and channel geometry. These processes are examined using the results of flume
experiments based on different roughness beds and a wide range of flows.
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